How to pour a concrete slab that is stronger and crack-free?
There is a lot of abuse done to garage slabs. Heavy cars and trucks need them to support them, and they must be resistant to contaminants including gasoline, motor oil, antifreeze, ice, dirt, salty water, and deicers. Furthermore, few garages have heating, so they must deal with freezing and thawing conditions. When planned, installed, and cured properly, a garage slab should last for years without cracks, even in harsh climates. This kind of work is done every day by contractors; if you adopt their attention to detail, you will meet their high quality standard without raising your prices.
Build a strong foundationThe bearing capacity of your soil is not as important as you might think. Poor soils like silt and soft clay can hold up to 400 pounds of pressure. Live loads, which include vehicles and anything else that isn't part of the building itself, don't often exceed 50 pounds of pressure in a garage with a 6-inch-thick slab. A typical garage slab can only be supported by soil that can hold up to 125 pounds of pressure per square foot.
A base's ability to provide consistent support is more important than its bearing capacity. One part of the slab may settle more than another, bending and possibly cracking the slab. This can be avoided by knowing which areas were cut and filled, and then compacting the filled areas afterward. Compaction of disturbed soil is also necessary following excavation. Too dry or too wet soil makes compaction difficult. Squeeze a handful of soil to determine the moisture level. It's too wet if you can squeeze it out, and too dry if it crumbles when you open your hand. A good, firm texture is good.
Ideally, compactable gravel or crushed stone should cover the free-flowing subsoil at a depth of no less than 4 inches in order to prevent soil compaction. 11/4 inch is a good size for the top; smaller sizes down to fines should also be used because irregular sizes and shapes provide the most interlocking. Under Slab conduit and pipes are easy to install on gravel or stone, and it allows water and radon to escape, which saves concrete costs. As a result, the slab is supported more evenly, as is the burden spread over the underlying soil. Moreover, it's easy to install and grade by hand.
It is probably the expansive clay that will be the most challenging to work with since it swells when wet and shrinks when dried, and cannot easily be compacted. This clay should be removed and replaced with a compactable fill. A foundation engineer can help if that is not feasible. Engineers sometimes recommend not relying on soil to support the structure. These slabs are called structural panels or post-tensioned panels.
Vapor barriers should be installedWhile unheated detached garages are not considered to be vapor barriers under most building codes, you'd still be wise to install one regardless. Water vapor can always be found beneath slabs, and moisture in the soil can wick up capillary action; air in the subbase is almost always 100% relative humidity. When any object is stored on the slab surface, moisture will condense beneath it, leaving dark spots on the slab surface without a vapor barrier. It is important to remember that the slab may "sweat." If ever covered with flooring or a finishing coat, the moisture may cause this layer to delaminate. Steer clear of this.
Over the subbase, underneath the concrete, a vapor barrier ought to be installed. Put the vapor barrier on top of rigid foam if you are installing it under the slab.
Don't cover the vapor barrier with sand or gravel blotters. It was once recommended to use a blotter layer to reduce curling in concrete slabs, but now blotters are unnecessary if you use a low-water concrete mix. As a result, moisture can actually remain trapped underneath the slab and rise upwards.
Tape should be applied to the seams of the vapor barrier so that they overlap by at least six inches. You can avoid concrete pushing into seams and tearing them by aligning the seams parallel to the placement of the concrete.
Water should not be added to the mixAccording to the IRC, slabs should be built with concrete that has a compressive strength between 2500 and 3500 pounds per square inch, depending on the weather. Moreover, ACI recommends using concrete with a compressive strength of 4500 psi for garages in the north of the country. Concrete with a 5-inch slump should have a water-cement ratio of about 0.5 or less in order to achieve this strength. Because the mix is slightly dry and stiff, adding water makes it easier to place. It's important to remember that the amount of water in the mix has an inverse relationship with the strength of the concrete -- the more water, the weaker the concrete. Use a water reducer that has a high range of water reduction, or a super-plasticizer, because that will help the concrete flow well enough to consolidate around the reinforcement.
In order to make the cement mix flow more easily, superplasticizers separate the cement grains. Alternatively, you can buy them in bags and add them on site. They can be mixed into the concrete at the ready-mix plant.
Entrained air requirements depend on the maximum aggregate size; larger aggregate requires less air. Throughout the southern U.S There are scarcely any regions outside ACI's severe and moderate weathering zones (see map, page 26). Air entrainment may be as much as 5 percent in moderate areas and as much as 7 percent in severe areas for 3/4-inch aggregates.
What is the ratio of water to cement in the concrete you get? What is the strength of the concrete? In the absence of testing or hiring a testing company, you will have to trust your ready-mix provider. However, the best way to ensure the quality of the concrete is to build good relationships with the producer. The contractor will adjust the mix according to your specifications and the purpose of the concrete.
Remove the slab from the slab:The walls and columns of foundations are usually more stable than the slabs, but they do settle as well. Likewise, slabs shrink as they dry and are continually affected by temperature changes. A slab can be moved independently around perimeter joints and penetrations if isolation joints are used around them.
A 1/2-inch-thick insulation joint should be made from asphalt-impregnated fiberboard or even cork. In some cases, builders make isolation joints with sill seals, but this product is only 1/4 inch thick. While it may serve as a bond break, the gap may not be large enough to let the slab move freely in relation to the foundation walls. The joint has to be as wide as the slab thickness and at the proper grade to prevent it from partially bonding to the wall when you use a concrete slab.
What is the purpose of wire mesh?Embedded steel reinforcement is common in garage slabs. In most cases, this steel is not used for structural purposes; instead it serves as a barrier to prevent cracks in slabs from spreading. If a slab has a uniform subbase, a low-shrinkage concrete mix, and proper joint spacing, it is unlikely to crack randomly, even without rebar, welded wire fabric, or mesh reinforcement. In light of this, more contractors are opting to pour garage slabs without steel.
Rather than using rolls of mesh, use flat sheets of steel, which are easier to work with and easier to flatten.. Three rows of #3 rebar arranged at 18 inches on center will provide more strength and ease of installation than mesh. To strengthen slab portions that are particularly prone to cracking, reinforce them with rebar and wire mesh. To prevent reentry at corners, for instance, four four-foot-long, three-inch bars should be placed diagonally.
A slab that isn't vertically centered won't receive much benefit from reinforcing steel. This can be accomplished by suspending mesh or rebar from pieces of concrete brick or from small supports (chairs). Unchained mesh will fall back to the concrete's base since it will be walked on again. A second layer of mesh may even be installed in a double layer; the lower layer acts as a prop for the upper layer, so it stays higher.
Reinforcement with fibersFiber reinforcement can increase the surface strength of the slab along with adding extra resistance to impact and abrasion at an affordable cost of about $8-12 per cubic yard. Plastic-shrinkage cracks, or cracking, can be reduced using the fibers. They won't prevent shrinkage cracking, however. A fiber mix of polypropylene and nylon is added to concrete before placing, which increases the cohesion of the mix.
Concrete placed with fiber reinforcement may suffer from less slump, and fibers may need to be buried with a vibrating screed. The finished surface may look a little hairy after strike off if it is done by hand, but that eventually wears off as traffic passes.
Finish your work slowlyIt is not necessary to trowel the surface till it is strong enough to sustain finishing operations and has been thoroughly leached. If any bleed water remains in the concrete, troweling usually leads to a soft, dust-prone surface that scales, crazes, and dusts easily. To determine whether the cement is set up enough to begin final finishing, take a thumbprint. If the thumbprint is 1/4" or larger, the cement is ready.
Joints cut with a sawShrinkage and cracking of concrete occur as it dries. Control joints, or contraction joints, help to create straight cracks in a slab by creating planes of weakness.
In order to be activated by shrinkage properly, the depth of a contraction joint should be equal to one-quarter the slab thickness. There should be two to three times as much space between joints in feet as there is in inches. Installing control joints on a five-inch-thick slab requires 11/4 inches of depth and 10 to 15 feet of space (the spacing should be closer where the concrete is wetter). In general, control joints should form panels as close to square as possible.
Contraction joints are sometimes made with plastic zip strips, but it can be difficult to remove the "zip" section without causing a rough appearance. Control joints that are saw-cut are more efficient than those that are hand-tooled. As a result, random cracking is less likely because they are deeper and more consistent. In early-entry dry-cut saws, shrinkage cracks have no time to form before they can be used, unlike conventional water-cooled saws.
Surfaces need to be properly curedSimilarly, a parched mud puddle shrinks and cracks when the surface dries too soon. Unless hydrated with water, cement won't be able to develop strong layers at the very point where you need it to be toughest. Surfaces that are improperly cured eventually develop cracks that cause craze and dust, and if the surface dries too quickly at the top, the slab will curl upward.
Cure-and-seal works by spraying a membrane-forming compound on the surface to prevent it from deteriorating. As a result, the slab will be protected from premature drying by a thin impermeable membrane. White pigment can be added to some compounds so they are more visible after spraying.
Avoid adhesion problems with poly sheeting or curing blankets when applying a curing compound to slabs. However, poly can cause the floor to appear mottled.
Details of crack-free slabs1. A subsoil that has not been disturbed. Using compacted fill, remove soils that are problematic, such as clay or organics.
2. In 4- to 6-inch lifts, compact sand and gravel backfill.
3. It should be at least 4 inches thick if the crushed stone or gravel is unwashed.
4. Put the rigid EPS insulation on top of a vapor barrier. We recommend reinforcing the slab with horizontal wires 6x6 W1.9xW1.9 centered horizontally in the slab and discontinuous at each joint. Make sure the wires are not hooked while placing the concrete.
5. Plastic vapor barrier (10 mil minimum) with seams that overlap six inches and are taped.
6. For areas subject to severe weathering, concrete must be at least 3500-psi (min. ), 4500-psi for heavy trucks.
7. Use air entrained concrete between 5% and 7% in freezing climates, and use 11/4-inch aggregates.
8. If you must penetrate a slab at the perimeter or at points such as columns, use 1/2-inch isolation joints.
9. As a precaution against plastic shrinkage cracks at the plant, reinforced fiber is usually added to the mix at 1.5 pounds PCY (per cubic yard).
10. Make contraction joints every 8 to 12 feet that are one-fourth the thickness of the slab, spacing them two to three times the thickness of the slab. Square panel edges should be used whenever possible.
11. Rebar #3 should be laid diagonally on the inside corners of reentrant walls to minimize cracking.
12. Cure the concrete using a curing compound or a curing blanket (keeping the curing blanket in place for 7 days after placement).